Maternal early pregnancy vitamin D status in relation to fetal and neonatal growth: results of the multi-ethnic Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort

Br J Nutr. 2010 Jul;104(1):108-17. doi: 10.1017/S000711451000022X. Epub 2010 Mar 2.


Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may account for reduced fetal growth and for altered neonatal development. The present study explored the association between maternal vitamin D status measured early in pregnancy and birth weight, prevalence of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and postnatal growth (weight and length), as well as the potential role of vitamin D status in explaining ethnic disparities in these outcomes. Data were derived from a large multi-ethnic cohort in The Netherlands (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort), and included 3730 women with live-born singleton term deliveries. Maternal serum vitamin D was measured during early pregnancy (median 13 weeks, interquartile range: 12-14), and was labelled 'deficient' ( <or= 29.9 nmol/l), 'insufficient' (30-49.9 nmol/l) or 'adequate' ( >or= 50 nmol/l). Six ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, other non-Western and other Western. Associations with neonatal outcomes were analysed using multivariate regression analyses. Results showed that compared with women with adequate vitamin D levels, women with deficient vitamin D levels had infants with lower birth weights ( - 114.4 g, 95 % CI - 151.2, - 77.6) and a higher risk of SGA (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.9, 3.2). Neonates born to mothers with a deficient vitamin D status showed accelerated growth in weight and length during the first year of life. Although a deficient vitamin D status influenced birth weight, SGA risk and neonatal growth, it played a limited role in explaining ethnic differences. Although vitamin D supplementation might be beneficial to those at risk of a deficient vitamin D status, more research is needed before a nationwide policy on the subject can be justified.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Birth Weight
  • Body Height
  • Body Weight
  • Female
  • Fetal Development*
  • Growth*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Small for Gestational Age* / growth & development
  • Male
  • Morocco / ethnology
  • Netherlands
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Pregnancy
  • Regression Analysis
  • Suriname / ethnology
  • Turkey / ethnology
  • Vitamin D / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / ethnology
  • Young Adult


  • Vitamin D