Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effects of the tissue adhesive N-butyl cyanoacrylate on nasal septal tissues after septal surgery in a rabbit model.
Methods: Forty-two adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (14 in each group): septoplasty alone, septoplasty plus N-butyl cyanoacrylate, and controls. The open approach was used to explore the nasal septum. After raising mucoperichondrial and mucoperiosteal flaps on both sides of the septum, the septum was detached from the nasal floor in the septoplasty alone and septoplasty plus N-butyl cyanoacrylate groups. In the septoplasty plus N-butyl cyanoacrylate group, the mucoperichondrial and mucoperiosteal flaps were fixed to the septum and the septum was fixed lateral to the nasal spine using N-butyl cyanoacrylate; in the septoplasty alone group, the septum was packed with Merocel. In the control group, no further septal surgery was performed after flap elevation. Animals were observed for bleeding and haematoma formation over the first 24 hours. Seven animals in each group were used to evaluate early histopathological effects on the septal tissues, at four weeks post-operatively; the other seven in each group were used to evaluate late effects, at 12 weeks.
Results: Haematoma formation was observed in 10 animals in the septoplasty alone group, in four animals in the control group, and in only one animal in the septoplasty plus N-butyl cyanoacrylate group. The difference in haematoma incidence between the septoplasty alone and the septoplasty plus N-butyl cyanoacrylate groups was significant (p = 0.000). Histopathological evaluation revealed no significant difference between the groups as regards granulation tissue formation at week four versus week 12; however, there was a significant difference between the septoplasty plus N-butyl cyanoacrylate group and the control groups as regards inflammation at week 12 (p = 0.038). There was a significant difference between the septoplasty plus N-butyl cyanoacrylate group and the septoplasty alone group as regards the composition of the bone-cartilage junction zone at week four (p = 0.001). There was also a significant difference between the septoplasty plus N-butyl cyanoacrylate group and the control group as regards the cellular structure of new cartilage formation at week 12 (p = 0.004).
Conclusions: In this rabbit septoplasty model, N-butyl cyanoacrylate appeared to be an effective nasal tissue adhesive, with a low complication rate.