The potential of 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) as an effective vaccine adjuvant

Vaccine. 2010 Apr 19;28(18):3080-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.081. Epub 2010 Mar 1.


3', 5'-Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial intracellular signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the regulation of bacterial motility, adhesion, cell-to-cell communication, exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation and virulence. The recent finding that c-di-GMP can act as a danger signal on eukaryotic cells has prompted the study of the immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties of c-di-GMP in an effort to determine whether c-di-GMP might be further developed as a potential vaccine adjuvant. In this review, we discussed the recent in vitro and in vivo studies of the immunostimulatory properties of c-di-GMP and the progress that has been made in the preclinical development of c-di-GMP as a potential vaccine adjuvant for systemic and mucosal vaccination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Cyclic GMP / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cyclic GMP / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Vaccines / immunology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Vaccines
  • bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid
  • Cyclic GMP