Objective: To outline the Kidney Education Outreach Program (KEOP) screening protocol, to describe the context in which these chronic kidney disease (CKD) screenings were administered, and to report the characteristics and screening results for participants from October 2005 to September 2008.
Methods: A cohort of 1742 people participated in targeted, free, community-based CKD screenings. Screenings included a self-report questionnaire regarding sociodemographic information, lifestyle behaviors, and personal and family health history. This survey was followed by urine dipstick testing for proteinuria and microalbuminuria.
Results: Medical histories were provided by 1694 individuals: 1522 through the complete questionnaire and 172 through an abbreviated questionnaire that differed principally in lack of information on family history of disease. Urine samples were collected from 1706 participants. The mean age of screening participants was 54 years old; 70% were female, 50% were African American, and 13% were Latino. More than 40% of subjects were obese. Roughly one-quarter (23%) had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and about half (47%) had been diagnosed with hypertension. Twenty-four percent reported a family history of kidney disease. While 60% of the participants tested positive for microalbuminuria, less than 4% of these persons had ever been told they had kidney disease.
Limitations: Lack of confirmatory testing with a serum creatinine (and estimated glomerular filtration rate) or, alternatively, with a 24-hour urine collection for creatinine clearance and protein excretion; no standardized follow-up for screened participants.
Discussion: The KEOP targeted screenings disclosed a high prevalence of known risk factors for CKD--diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, advanced age, and family history of kidney disease. However, despite these factors, less than 4% of screened participants were aware of a diagnosis of CKD.