Comparative effectiveness of two pharmacy-based colorectal cancer screening interventions during an annual influenza vaccination campaign

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010 Mar-Apr;50(2):181-7. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2010.09199.


Objective: To compare the effectiveness of two different pharmacy-based colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) interventions taking place during an annual influenza vaccination campaign.

Design: Time-randomized clinical trial.

Setting: San Francisco, CA, in late 2008.

Participants: 133 adults aged 50 to 80 years visiting a pharmacy during an influenza vaccination campaign and also due for CRCS.

Intervention: On five dates, eligible patients were provided education and encouraged to obtain screening from their primary care clinician. On 17 dates, a home fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for CRCS was provided. A 16-item questionnaire was administered by phone 3 to 6 months after study enrollment.

Main outcome measure: Self-reported CRCS activity, comparing CRCS completion rates for participants provided with the FIT versus those provided with education and encouragement to obtain screening from patients' primary care clinician.

Results: 86 participants in the FIT arm and 28 the CRCS education arm were interviewed. Interviews revealed that 19.8% of the FIT group and 50% of the CRCS education group discussed CRCS with their primary care clinician (P = 0.002). Of these participants, 59.3% in the FIT arm and 14.8% in the CRCS education arm reported completing screening (P < 0.001). Of participants in the FIT group, 52.2% completed FIT dispensed to them by the investigators. Most participants in both groups reported interest in receiving CRCS education and home CRCS tests from pharmacists in the future.

Conclusion: Pharmacy patients are receptive to CRCS interventions delivered in community pharmacies. Providing FIT to eligible patients during a pharmacy-based influenza vaccination campaign increases screening rates more than CRCS education alone.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • California
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs / methods*
  • Immunization Programs / statistics & numerical data
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods
  • Mass Screening / organization & administration*
  • Mass Screening / statistics & numerical data
  • Middle Aged
  • Occult Blood*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data
  • Patient Education as Topic / statistics & numerical data
  • Pharmacies / organization & administration*
  • Pharmacies / standards
  • Pharmacies / statistics & numerical data
  • Pilot Projects
  • Program Evaluation*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Influenza Vaccines