Diabetes is a proinflammatory state: a translational perspective

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan 1;5(1):19-28. doi: 10.1586/eem.09.44.


The diabetic state confers an increased propensity to accelerated atherogenesis. Inflammation is pivotal in atherosclerosis; in addition to the established risk factors, inflammation appears to play a pivotal role in diabetes and its complications. Evidence for increased inflammation includes: increased levels of plasma C-reactive protein, the prototypic marker of inflammation; increased levels of plasminogen-activator inhibitor; increased monocyte superoxide and proinflammatory cytokine release (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha); increased monocyte adhesion to endothelium; increased NF-kappaB activity; and increased Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression and activity in diabetes. Thus, it appears that both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are proinflammatory states and that these could contribute to increased diabetic vasculopathies.