Many polyphenolics contained in mango have shown anticancer activity. The objective of this study was to compare the anticancer properties of polyphenolic extracts from several mango varieties (Francis, Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Haden) in cancer cell lines, including Molt-4 leukemia, A-549 lung, MDA-MB-231 breast, LnCap prostate, and SW-480 colon cancer cells and the noncancer colon cell line CCD-18Co. Cell lines were incubated with Ataulfo and Haden extracts, selected on the basis of their superior antioxidant capacity compared to the other varieties, where SW-480 and MOLT-4 were statistically equally most sensitive to both cultivars followed by MDA-MB-231, A-549, and LnCap in order of decreasing efficacy as determined by cell counting. The efficacy of extracts from all mango varieties in the inhibition of cell growth was tested in SW-480 colon carcinoma cells, where Ataulfo and Haden demonstrated superior efficacy, followed by Kent, Francis, and Tommy Atkins. At 5 mg of GAE/L, Ataulfo inhibited the growth of colon SW-480 cancer cells by approximately 72% while the growth of noncancer colonic myofibroblast CCD-18Co cells was not inhibited. The growth inhibition exerted by Ataulfo and Haden polyphenolics in SW-480 was associated with an increased mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic biomarkers and cell cycle regulators, cell cycle arrest, and a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, polyphenolics from several mango varieties exerted anticancer effects, where compounds from Haden and Ataulfo mango varieties possessed superior chemopreventive activity.