Newborn screening (NBS) reaches approximately all of the 4 million newborns in the United States each year and has been effective in significantly reducing the morbidity and mortality that results from certain congenital conditions. The comprehensive NBS system can be divided into preanalytic (education and screening), analytic (laboratory testing), and postanalytic (reporting, short-term follow-up/tracking, diagnosis, treatment/management, ancillary services, and outcome evaluation) activities. To monitor and improve the screening system, there has been increasing emphasis on evaluation models. Federal sponsorship of a model performance evaluation and assessment scheme (PEAS) has resulted in a comprehensive listing of quality indicators for system self-assessment. We review the PEAS evolution process in an effort to illustrate the necessary infrastructure considerations in a well-functioning NBS system. Readers are encouraged to identify their role in the system and to interact appropriately at the local level. The comprehensive PEAS indicator list is provided as an Appendix.
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