The ascertainment of the rates and driving forces of human genome evolution along with the genetic diversity of populations or separate population groups remains a topical problem of fundamental and applied genomics. According to the results of comparative analysis, the most numerous human genome structure peculiarities are connected with the distribution of mobile genetic retroelements - LTR, LINE1, SVA, and Alu repeats. Due to the wide distribution in different genome loci, conversed retropositional activity, and the retroelements regulatory potential, let us regard them as one of the significant evolutionary driving forces and the source of human genome variability. In the current review, we summarize published data and recent results of our research aimed at the analysis of the evolutionary impact of the young retroelements group on the function and variability of the human genome. We examine modern approaches of the polygenomic identification of polymorphic retroelements inserts. Using an original Internet resource, we analyze special features of the genomic polymorphic inserts of Alu repeats. We thoroughly characterize the strategy of large-scale functional analysis of polymorphic retroelement inserts. The presented results confirm the hypothesis of the roles of retroelements as active cis regulatory elements that are able to modulate surrounding genes.