This review provides an analysis of current data on the tissue and cell components of the vaginal portion of the uterine cervix (ectocervix - EC) in human female and on their interrelations under normal conditions and in the development of some pathological processes. Detailed histological and immunocytochemical characteristic is given to two types of the epithelium--stratified squamous and columnar; the regularities and mechanisms of their junction displacement during various age periods are described. The data on the relation between the proliferation activity and apoptosis intensity in EC epithelium at different developmental stages are discussed. The data are presented on connective tissue component (stroma), its vascular and nervous structures. Cellular elements of the immune system contained in EC are examined. The significance of hormones and other biologically active molecules in the control of EC tissue functions and in coordination of their interaction, is emphasized.