Background: Despite the availability of effective asthma treatments and evidence-based management guidelines focusing on asthma control, many patients have asthma that is inadequately controlled. The objective of this analysis was to identify risk factors for uncontrolled asthma among adult and pediatric patients.
Methods: Two cross-sectional surveys assessing asthma control status were conducted between January 25 and May 2, 2008, among adult and pediatric patients with asthma. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, medical history, and current asthma medication use. In addition, participants completed either the Asthma Control Test (ACT) or Childhood ACT (C-ACT). Uncontrolled asthma was defined as a score of < or = 19 on the ACT or C-ACT. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors related to uncontrolled asthma.
Results: A sample of 64 primary care provider sites (35 for adults and 29 for pediatric patients) across the United States enrolled. One study enrolled 2238 adults (aged > or = 18 years) and the other 2429 children (aged 4-17 years) with asthma. The patients were visiting their health care provider for a scheduled appointment for any reason. The overall prevalence of uncontrolled asthma was 58% and 46% in adult and pediatric patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified predictors of uncontrolled asthma in both adults and children including self-reported asthma severity, lack of adherence, and recent history of cold, flu, or sinus infection. The predictors of uncontrolled asthma seen only in adults were less education, insurance status, current smoker, body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2), and history of gastroesophageal symptoms. The predictors of uncontrolled asthma seen only in children were female aged 12-17 years, caregiver unemployment, and history of asthma exacerbation.
Conclusions: A high proportion of patients with asthma seen in primary care settings are not well controlled. Recognition of specific predictors can signal who may be at higher risk of uncontrolled asthma and provide the opportunity for early interventions.