Risk factors for end-stage renal disease in a community-based population: 26-year follow-up of 25,821 men and women in eastern Finland

J Intern Med. 2010 Jun;267(6):612-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2009.02197.x. Epub 2010 Nov 19.


Background and objective: There are very few European cohort studies assessing the risk factors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a community-based population. This study investigated the predictors of ESRD in Finland.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Eastern Finland.

Subjects: A random sample of 25,821 men and women aged 25-64 years from the national population register participating in three independent cross-sectional population surveys in 1972, 1977 and 1982. Only the subjects without diagnosis of ESRD or chronic kidney disease based on the national register data were included in the study.

Main outcome measure: Initiation of renal replacement therapy (dialysis or kidney transplantation) identified from the Finnish Registry for Kidney Diseases through December 31, 2006.

Results: A total of 94 cases with ESRD were identified during a mean follow-up period of 26.5 years. In a multivariate proportional subdistribution hazard regression analysis, taking into account death as a competing risk event, diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 4.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.32-9.79), hypertension (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.19-4.12), obesity defined as body mass index > or =30 kg m(-2) (HR 2.02, 95 %CI 1.10-3.71) and male gender (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.19-4.12) were independent risk factors for ESRD.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study confirm that modifiable risk factors play a major role in the development of ESRD in the North-European population. People with diabetes, hypertension or obesity should be considered as the target groups when planning preventive measures to control the future epidemic of ESRD.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Finland / epidemiology
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Factors