Maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy is important for the growth and development of the fetus. The effects of pre-pregnancy nutrition (estimated by maternal size) are well documented. There is little information in today's Western society on the effect of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on the fetus. The aim of the study was to describe dietary patterns of a cohort of mothers during pregnancy (using principal components analysis with a varimax rotation) and assess the effect of these dietary patterns on the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) baby. The study was a case-control study investigating factors related to SGA. The population was 1714 subjects in Auckland, New Zealand, born between October 1995 and November 1997, about half of whom were born SGA ( < or = 10th percentile for sex and gestation). Maternal dietary information was collected using FFQ after delivery for the first and last months of pregnancy. Three dietary patterns (traditional, junk and fusion) were defined. Factors associated with these dietary patterns when examined in multivariable analyses included marital status, maternal weight, maternal age and ethnicity. In multivariable analysis, mothers who had higher 'traditional' diet scores in early pregnancy were less likely to deliver a SGA infant (OR = 0.86; 95 % CI 0.75, 0.99). Maternal diet, particularly in early pregnancy, is important for the development of the fetus. Socio-demographic factors tend to be significantly related to dietary patterns, suggesting that extra resources may be necessary for disadvantaged mothers to ensure good nutrition in pregnancy.