Current practices in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis

Am J Ophthalmol. 1991 May 15;111(5):601-10. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(14)73706-7.


To determine current practices in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis, 72 of 85 uveitis specialists (85%) in the American Uveitis Society completed a detailed questionnaire. Questions involved the indications for beginning treatment, choice of antiparasitic/antimicrobial agents, and experience with treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis in special situations including pregnancy, neonatal infections, and immunocompromised patients. Most of the respondents treat patients whose visual acuity had decreased to worse than 20/200, lesions located in the peripapillary, perifoveal, or maculopapillary bundle regions, and lesions associated with severe vitreous inflammation. Most would not treat patients who retained visual acuity of 20/20, lesions located in the far peripheral retina, or lesions associated with only trace to mild vitreous inflammation. Treatment of other combinations of factors remains controversial. Eight different antimicrobial drugs are used in various combinations for lesions threatening the macula or optic nerve head. Systemic corticosteroids are used by 59 of 62 respondents (95%) as part of their initial treatment regimen. The most commonly used regimens are pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine/corticosteroids (20 of 62 [32%]) and pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine/clindamycin/corticosteroids (17 of 62 [27%]). Adjunctive therapies (photocoagulation, cryotherapy, or vitrectomy) have been used by 20 of 60 respondents (33%). Most alter treatment during pregnancy, in newborn patients, and in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiprotozoal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cryosurgery
  • Eye Infections, Parasitic / drug therapy*
  • Eye Infections, Parasitic / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression Therapy
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Light Coagulation
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / surgery
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / drug therapy*
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / surgery
  • Visual Acuity / drug effects
  • Vitrectomy


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antiprotozoal Agents