PURPOSE This phase III, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel in chemotherapy-naïve patients with unresectable stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS Nine hundred twenty-six patients were randomly assigned to receive up to six 21-day cycles of carboplatin area under the curve 6 and paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) (CP) on day 1, followed by either sorafenib 400 mg twice a day (n = 464, arm A) or placebo (n = 462, arm B) on days 2 to 19. The maintenance phase after CP consisted of sorafenib 400 mg or placebo twice a day. The primary end point was overall survival (OS); secondary end points included progression-free survival and tumor response. RESULTS Overall demographics were balanced between arms; 223 patients (24%) had squamous cell histology. On the basis of a planned interim analysis, median OS was 10.7 months in arm A and 10.6 months in arm B (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.41; P = .915). The study was terminated after the interim analysis concluded that the study was highly unlikely to meet its primary end point. A prespecified exploratory analysis revealed that patients with squamous cell histology had greater mortality in arm A than in arm B (HR = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.81). Main grade 3 or 4 sorafenib-related toxicities included rash (8.4%), hand-foot skin reaction (7.8%), and diarrhea (3.5%). CONCLUSION No clinical benefit was observed from adding sorafenib to CP chemotherapy as first-line treatment for NSCLC.