Association of vitamin D with insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes

Diabetes Care. 2010 Jun;33(6):1379-81. doi: 10.2337/dc09-2321. Epub 2010 Mar 9.


Objective: To examine cross-sectional associations of serum vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D] concentration with insulin resistance (IR) and beta-cell dysfunction in 712 subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes.

Research design and methods: Serum 25(OH)D was determined using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Insulin sensitivity/resistance were measured using the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index for oral glucose tolerance tests (IS(OGTT)) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance HOMA-IR. beta-Cell function was determined using both the insulinogenic index (IGI) divided by HOMA-IR (IGI/IR) and the insulin secretion sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). RESULTS Linear regression analyses indicated independent associations of 25(OH)D with IS(OGTT) and HOMA-IR (beta = 0.004, P = 0.0003, and beta = -0.003, P = 0.0072, respectively) and with IGI/IR and ISSI-2 (beta = 0.004, P = 0.0286, and beta = 0.003, P = 0.0011, respectively) after adjusting for sociodemographics, physical activity, supplement use, parathyroid hormone, and BMI.

Conclusions: Vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, as 25(OH)D concentration was independently associated with both insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function among individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology*
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / pathology*
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D