RNA editing diversifies the human transcriptome beyond the genomic repertoire. Recent years have proven a strategy based on genomics and computational sequence analysis as a powerful tool for identification and characterization of RNA editing. In particular, analysis of the human transcriptome has resulted in the identification of thousands of A-to-I editing sites within genomic repeats, as well as a few hundred sites located outside repeats. We review these recent advancements, emphasizing the principles underlying the various methods used. Possible directions for extending these methods are discussed.