MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are integral elements in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression. After the identification of hundreds of miRNAs, the challenge is now to understand their specific biological function. Signalling pathways are ideal candidates for miRNA-mediated regulation owing to the sharp dose-sensitive nature of their effects. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs affect the responsiveness of cells to signalling molecules such as transforming growth factor-beta, WNT, Notch and epidermal growth factor. As such, miRNAs serve as nodes of signalling networks that ensure homeostasis and regulate cancer, metastasis, fibrosis and stem cell biology.