Metabolic engineering has enabled us to develop strains suitable for their use as microbial factories of chemicals and materials from renewable sources. It has recently become more powerful with the advanced in synthetic biology, which is allowing us to create novel and fine-controlled metabolic and regulatory circuits maximizing metabolic fluxes to the desired products in the strain being developed. This enables us to engineer host microorganisms to enhance their innate metabolic capabilities or to gain new capabilities in the production of target compounds. Here we review recently constructed synthetic pathways that have been successfully applied for producing non-innate chemicals and also discuss recent approaches developed to increase the efficiency of synthetic pathways for achieving higher productivities of desired bioproducts.
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