Addressing competencies for the future in the professional curriculum

Am J Pharm Educ. 2009 Dec 17;73(8):156. doi: 10.5688/aj7308156.


This paper reviews the literature, analyzes current and future practice, develops a list of competencies necessary for future pharmacists, and provides recommendations to pharmacy's academic enterprise regarding curricula of the future. Curricula of the future will center around 3 functional roles for pharmacists: patient-centered care, population-based care, and systems management; and must also foster the development of 5 cross-cutting abilities in student pharmacists: professionalism, self-directed learning, leadership and advocacy, interprofessional collaboration, and cultural competency. Future curricula must be developed in an evidence-based manner, focus less on information storage and retrieval, engage student pharmacists in a variety of highly interactive learning experiences, and expand experiential learning opportunities throughout all years.

Keywords: competencies; cultural competency; curriculum; professionalism; self-directed learning.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Competence*
  • Community Pharmacy Services
  • Competency-Based Education / organization & administration
  • Cooperative Behavior
  • Cultural Competency
  • Curriculum*
  • Educational Measurement
  • Evidence-Based Practice
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Interprofessional Relations
  • Leadership
  • Patient Advocacy
  • Patient-Centered Care
  • Problem-Based Learning / organization & administration
  • Professional Role
  • School Admission Criteria
  • Schools, Pharmacy / organization & administration*
  • Students, Pharmacy*