High density lipoproteins (HDL) not only provide a serum transport vector for paraoxonase-1 (PON1) but also contribute to enzyme activity, stability and, consequently, function. The contribution of the apolipoprotein (apo) components of HDL to overall PON1 activity and function is not clearly established. ApoAI appears of major importance in defining serum PON1 activity and stability, but in the context of an interaction with the phospholipid fraction of HDL. This may involve a role in establishing the architecture of the HDL particle that optimally integrates the PON1 peptide. As the second, major structural peptide of HDL, apoAII may accomplish a similar role. These apolipoproteins, together with others associated with HDL, may also exert a more indirect influence on PON1 function by sequestering oxidised lipids that could compromise enzyme activity. The latter has been exploited therapeutically to give rise to apolipoprotein mimetic peptides that may be useful in limiting oxidative stress within the lipoprotein system, thus permitting PON1 activity to be maximally expressed.