Objectives: To evaluate the relationship among ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in a multi-ethnic population of obese children with clinic blood pressure in the reference range.
Study design: A total of 43 obese normotensive children (7-17 years old) were recruited. ABP monitoring, oral glucose tolerance test, lipid levels, and urine microalbumin levels were obtained.
Results: Fourteen percent of the subjects had elevated 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP), 9.3% had elevated daytime SBP, and 32.6 % elevated nighttime SBP. For diastolic blood pressure, 4.7% of the sample had an elevated mean nighttime value. Children with more severe obesity (BMI SD score >2.5) had higher 24-hour and nighttime SBP than children with less severe obesity (BMI SD score < or =2.5). Children with HOMA values in the highest quartile had larger waist circumference and higher clinic blood pressure than children with HOMA values in the lowest quartile, and no difference in the mean ABP values was found in the 2 groups . Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 24-hour and nighttime SBP were significantly correlated with BMI SD score.
Conclusion: Obese children with normal clinic blood pressure often exhibit elevated ABP. The risk for ambulatory hypertension appears to be correlated with the degree of obesity.
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