Objectives: To determine the prevalence of traditional cardiometabolic risk factors and to assess the effect of overweight/obesity on the occurrence of these risk factors in a cohort of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Study design: Two hundred eighty-three consecutive patients (3 to 18 years of age) attending an outpatient clinic for T1DM care were included. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors, the metabolic syndrome, and high alanine aminotransferase, were assessed before and after stratification for weight status.
Results: Of all children (median age, 12.8 years; interquartile range, 9.9 to 16.0; median diabetes duration, 5.3 years; interquartile range, 2.9 to 8.6), 38.5% were overweight/obese (Z-body mass index > or =1.1). Overall, median HbA1c levels were 8.2% (interquartile range, 7.4 to 9.8), and HbA1c > or =7.5% was present in 73.9%. Microalbuminuria was found in 17.7%, high triglycerides (>1.7 mmol/L) in 17.3%, high LDL-cholesterol (>2.6 mmol/L) in 28.6%, low HDL-cholesterol (<1.1 mmol/L) in 21.2%, and hypertension in 13.1% of patients. In the overweight/obese children with T1DM, versus normal-weight children, a higher prevalence of hypertension (23.9% vs 5.7%), the metabolic syndrome (25.7% vs 6.3%), and alanine aminotransferase >30 IU/L (15.6% vs 4.5%) was found (all P < .05).
Conclusions: Overweight/obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors were highly prevalent in a pediatric cohort with T1DM. Hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, and high alanine aminotransferase were significantly more prevalent in overweight/obese compared with normal-weight children with T1DM.
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