The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of hemoplasmas in cats and dogs from the Barcelona area of Spain with the use of species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and to evaluate any associations between hemoplasma infection, clinical presentation, and vector-borne infections. Blood samples from cats (191) and dogs (182) were included and were classified as healthy (149) or unhealthy (224). Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid blood samples underwent DNA extraction and qPCR analysis. Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' were detected in cats, whereas Mycoplasma haemocanis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' were detected in dogs, with prevalences of 3.7%, 9.9%, 0.5%, 14.3%, and 0.6%, respectively. In cats, no association between hemoplasma infection and health status, age, breed, presence of anemia, Feline leukemia virus status, and other vector-borne infections was found, but outdoor access (P = 0.009), male sex (P = 0.01), and Feline immunodeficiency virus status (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with hemoplasma infection. In dogs, sex, age, health status, presence of anemia, and breed were not significantly associated with hemoplasma infection, but a significant association was found between hemoplasma infection and vector-borne infections (P < 0.001). The present report documents the occurrence of feline 'Candidatus M. turicensis' and canine 'Candidatus M. haematoparvum' infections in Spain.