Intrinsic MANOVA for Riemannian manifolds with an application to Kendall's space of planar shapes

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell. 2010 Apr;32(4):593-603. doi: 10.1109/TPAMI.2009.117.


We propose an intrinsic multifactorial model for data on Riemannian manifolds that typically occur in the statistical analysis of shape. Due to the lack of a linear structure, linear models cannot be defined in general; to date only one-way MANOVA is available. For a general multifactorial model, we assume that variation not explained by the model is concentrated near elements defining the effects. By determining the asymptotic distributions of respective sample covariances under parallel transport, we show that they can be compared by standard MANOVA. Often in applications manifolds are only implicitly given as quotients, where the bottom space parallel transport can be expressed through a differential equation. For Kendall's space of planar shapes, we provide an explicit solution. We illustrate our method by an intrinsic two-way MANOVA for a set of leaf shapes. While biologists can identify genotype effects by sight, we can detect height effects that are otherwise not identifiable.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Biometry / methods
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Multivariate Analysis*
  • Normal Distribution
  • Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods*
  • Plant Leaves