The systemic administration of oncolytic virus (OV) is often inefficient due to clearance of the virus by host defense mechanism and spurious targeting of non-cancer tissues through the bloodstream. Cell mediated OV delivery could hide the virus from host defenses and direct them toward tumors: Mesenchymal and neural stem cells have been described to possess tumor-homing ability as well as the capacity to deliver OVs. In this review, we will focus on approaches where OV and carrier cells are utilized for cancer therapy. Effective cellular internalization and replication of OVs need to occur both in cancer and carrier cells. We thus will discuss the current challenges faced by the use of OV delivery via carrier cells.
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