Diversity of structure and function of response regulator output domains

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010 Apr;13(2):150-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2010.01.005. Epub 2010 Mar 11.


Response regulators (RRs) within two-component signal transduction systems control a variety of cellular processes. Most RRs contain DNA-binding output domains and serve as transcriptional regulators. Other RR types contain RNA-binding, ligand-binding, protein-binding or transporter output domains and exert regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional or post-translational levels. In a significant fraction of RRs, output domains are enzymes that themselves participate in signal transduction: methylesterases, adenylate or diguanylate cyclases, c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases, histidine kinases, serine/threonine protein kinases and protein phosphatases. In addition, there remain output domains whose functions are still unknown. Patterns of the distribution of various RR families are generally conserved within key microbial lineages and can be used to trace adaptations of various species to their unique ecological niches.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Archaea / chemistry
  • Archaea / enzymology
  • Archaea / genetics
  • Archaea / metabolism
  • Archaeal Proteins* / chemistry
  • Archaeal Proteins* / metabolism
  • Bacteria / chemistry
  • Bacteria / enzymology
  • Bacteria / genetics
  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Bacterial Proteins* / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins* / metabolism
  • Binding Sites
  • Catalytic Domain / physiology*
  • Eukaryota / enzymology
  • Eukaryota / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Proteins* / chemistry
  • Proteins* / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Archaeal Proteins
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Proteins