Biomineralization of ferritin core has been extended to the artificial synthesis of homogeneous metal complex nanoparticles (NPs) and semiconductor NPs. The inner cavity of apoferritin is an ideal spatially restricted chemical reaction chamber for NP synthesis. The obtained ferritin (biocomplexes, NP and the surrounding protein shell) has attracted great interest among researchers in the field of nanodevices. Ferritins were delivered onto specific substrate locations in a one-by-one manner or a hexagonally close-packed array through ferritin outer surface interactions. After selective elimination of protein shells from the ferritin, bare NPs were left at the positions where they were delivered. The obtained NPs were used as catalysts for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth and metal induced lateral crystallization (MILC), charge storage nodes of floating gate memory, and nanometer-scale etching masks, which could not be performed by other methods.
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