On the sites of secondary podia formation in a juvenile echinoid: growth of the body types in echinoderms

Dev Genes Evol. 2009 Dec;219(11-12):597-608. doi: 10.1007/s00427-010-0321-9. Epub 2010 Mar 13.


The growth of the adult echinoderm body is addressed here in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens in a study of the early development of the secondary podia along the five radial canals of the adult rudiment. At a stage when the first four secondary podia have formed along each radius oral to the primary podium, two podia are on one side of the radius and two are on the other side, all at a different distance from the primary podium. The pattern of the connexions of these secondary podia to the radial canals changes in successive radii in a manner similar to Lovén's law for skeletal plates and matches the reported sequence in the times at which the first ambulacral skeletal plates form in the adult echinoid rudiment. A similar pattern is described for the reported origins of the secondary podia in apodid holothurians. A common plan for the growth of the body types is described for echinoids, asteroids, holothurians and concentricycloids. The five metameric series of secondary podia formed in echinoderms have a coelomic developmental origin like the single metameric series of somites formed in the axial structures of chordates.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution*
  • Echinodermata / anatomy & histology
  • Echinodermata / growth & development*
  • Extremities / anatomy & histology
  • Extremities / growth & development*
  • Larva / anatomy & histology
  • Larva / growth & development
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Models, Biological*
  • Morphogenesis / physiology*
  • New South Wales
  • Species Specificity