Self-efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis: translation and test of validity, reliability and sensitivity of the Danish version of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (RASE)

Musculoskeletal Care. 2010 Sep;8(3):123-35. doi: 10.1002/msc.172.


Objectives: To describe the translation and test of the Danish version of the original British 'Rheumatoid Arthritis Self-Efficacy Questionnaire' (RASE).

Methods: The questionnaire was forward and back translated by individuals with Danish and English as their respective primary languages. The questionnaire was tested by five lay-people and in the field by 10 + five persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A test-retest was performed on 62 outpatients with RA. The sensitivity of the adapted Danish version of RASE (RASE-DK) was finally tested on 106 outpatients with RA - before, immediately after and three months after they had participated in a short self-management course performed by a multidisciplinary team.

Results: RASE-DK showed good face validity, but 'relaxation' was interpreted in various ways. Internal consistency evaluated by Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. Reliability evaluated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.88. A Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement. RASE-DK, like the original English version of RASE, was not associated with disease activity (Disease Activity Score, DAS-28) or disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ), and correlated significantly with the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES) subscales 'other' and 'pain', and total ASES. RASE-DK showed a highly significant change, from baseline to immediately after participation in the short course (p < 0.001). The effect faded during the following three months.

Conclusion: RASE-DK met the appropriate standards for validity, reliability and sensitivity, and is appropriate for use in Denmark. However, the concept of self-efficacy may be too abstract for a few individuals, and relaxation is interpreted in various ways by the Danish patients.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / physiopathology
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / psychology*
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Denmark
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Female
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Psychometrics / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*