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. 2010 Mar 16;18(3):397-409.
doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2010.01.014.

Rec8 Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 1 and Cdc7-Dbf4 Kinase Regulates Cohesin Cleavage by Separase During Meiosis

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Free PMC article

Rec8 Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 1 and Cdc7-Dbf4 Kinase Regulates Cohesin Cleavage by Separase During Meiosis

Vittorio L Katis et al. Dev Cell. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

During meiosis, two rounds of chromosome segregation after a single round of DNA replication produce haploid gametes from diploid precursors. At meiosis I, maternal and paternal kinetochores are pulled toward opposite poles, and chiasmata holding bivalent chromosomes together are resolved by cleavage of cohesin's alpha-kleisin subunit (Rec8) along chromosome arms. This creates dyad chromosomes containing a pair of chromatids joined solely by cohesin at centromeres that had resisted cleavage. The discovery that centromeric Rec8 is protected from separase during meiosis I by shugoshin/MEI-S332 proteins that bind PP2A phosphatase suggests that phosphorylation either of separase or cohesin may be necessary for Rec8 cleavage. We show here that multiple phosphorylation sites within Rec8 as well as two different kinases, casein kinase 1delta/epsilon (CK1delta/epsilon) and Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase (DDK), are required for Rec8 cleavage and meiosis I nuclear division. Rec8 with phosphomimetic mutations is no longer protected from separase at centromeres and is cleaved even when the two kinases are inhibited. Our data suggest that PP2A protects centromeric cohesion by opposing CK1delta/epsilon- and DDK-dependent phosphorylation of Rec8.

Figures

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Figure 1
Figure 1
Rec8 Phosphorylation Is Required for Chiasmata Resolution upon APC/C Activation (A) Phosphorylated serines and threonines identified in purified Rec8-TAP (blue), Rec8-12A-TAP (green), and Rec8-24A-TAP (orange). Regions conserved between α-kleisins are gray. See also Figure S1 and Table S1. (B and C) Live imaging of meiotic REC8-GFP (Z12781) and rec8-24A-GFP (Z12782) cells containing Cnm67-RFP at SPBs and Pds1-RFP (fluorescence detectable only in meiosis I). (B) Top: time-lapse series. Arrows mark centromeric Rec8. Bottom: the presence of Pds1 (meiosis I, red), Rec8 (entire chromatin, green; centromeric, blue), two or four SPBs (black), and four SPBs (gray) was quantified every 5 min in 100 cells, in which Pds1 degradation was set to t = 0. (C) Parameters listed in (B) were quantified every 10 min after the induction of meiosis (t = 0) in 100 cells. See also Figures S2A and S2B. (D) Live imaging of meiotic REC8-ha (Z15617) and rec8-24A-ha (Z13861) cells containing Pds1-RFP, TetR-GFP, and homozygous LYS2-tetO. TetR-GFP labels the nucleus (diffuse signal) and all LYS2 loci (dots). Top: time-lapse series. Bottom: the presence of Pds1 (meiosis I, red), three or four LYS2-GFP dots (loss of arm cohesion, green), two nuclei (black), and four nuclei (gray) was quantified every 5 min in 100 cells, in which Pds1 degradation was set to t = 0. (E) Live imaging of meiotic REC8-ha spo11Δ (Z15789) and rec8-24A-ha spo11Δ (Z15790) cells containing Pds1-RFP, TetR-GFP, and heterozygous LYS2-tetO. Meiosis was analyzed as in (D), except loss of arm cohesion is indicated by two LYS2-GFP dots (green).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Rec8 Phosphorylation Is Required for Its Cleavage (A) Live imaging of meiosis in REC8-ha/REC8 (Z12035) and rec8-24A-ha/REC8 (Z12036) heterozygotes containing Pds1-RFP, TetR-GFP, and homozygous LYS2-tetO. Timing is relative to Pds1 degradation (t = 0) as in Figure 1D. See also Figure S2C. (B and C) ndt80Δ cells heterozygous for REC8-myc/REC8-ha (K15584) or REC8-myc/rec8-24A-ha (K15585) were released from arrest in prophase I by expressing NDT80 from an estradiol-inducible promoter. Samples were collected at different times after release (t = 0). (B) Top: immunoblot detection of Rec8-myc, Rec8-ha, and Swi6 (loading control). Bottom: percentages of cells (n ≥ 100) with a short (blue) or a long (orange) spindle and two (black) or four (gray) nuclei. (C) Rec8-ha localization at centromeres or on the entire chromatin was quantified on chromosome spreads from anaphase I (n ≥ 50), where Rec8-myc is confined to the vicinity of SPBs (Tub4/γ-tubulin staining). (D) Cleavage of Rec8 in vitro. Chromatin isolated from the strains in (B), arrested in prophase I (but not released), was incubated with different mixtures of extracts from mitotic cells overproducing wild-type (wt, esp1-1 PGAL-ESP1, K8965) or catalytic-dead (cd, esp1-1 PGAL-esp1-C1531A, K8967) Esp1/separase. Reactions separated into chromatin pellet and supernatant were analyzed by anti-Myc and anti-Ha immunoblotting. Chromatin-associated Hmo1 and cytosolic Pgk1 served as loading controls.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Phosphomimetic Rec8 Mutants Are Not Protected at Centromeres (A) Phosphomimetic Rec8 mutants generated by changing the indicated residues to aspartate. Regions conserved between α-kleisins are gray. (B–D) Immunofluorescence microscopy of meiotic REC8-ha (K15246), rec8-14D-ha (K15247), rec8-7D-I-ha (K16271), rec8-7D-II-ha (K16272), rec8-4D-ha (K16420), and rec8-3D-ha (K16421) cells containing Pds1-myc, TetR-GFP, and heterozygous URA3-tetO. (B) Quantification of the pattern of URA3 sister segregation at anaphase I (n = 100). (C) Quantification of URA3 sister nondisjunction at anaphase II (n = 100). (D) Quantification of the presence of centromeric Rec8 at metaphase II (n = 100). (E and F) Live imaging of Rec8-GFP, Cnm67-RFP at SPBs, and Pds1-RFP in meiosis. Timing is relative to Pds1 degradation (t = 0) as in Figure 1B. Arrows mark centromeric Rec8. (E) REC8-GFP (Z12781, from Figure 1B) and rec8-14D-GFP (Z12783) cells at 30°C. (F) rec8-14D-GFP (Z12783) and rec8-14D-GFP esp1-2 (Z15642) cells at 34°C. See also Figure S3.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Phosphomimetic Rec8 Supports Sister Centromere Cohesion in Metaphase I and Does Not Affect the Localization of Sgo1-PP2A (A and B) Immunofluorescence microscopy of meiotic cells containing Pds1-myc; TetR-GFP; heterozygous URA3-tetO; and REC8-ha (K15444), mam1Δ REC8-ha (K15448), rec8-14D-ha (K15247), mam1Δ rec8-14D-ha (K15449), spo11Δ REC8-ha (K15446), spo11Δ mam1Δ REC8-ha (K15450), spo11Δ rec8-14D-ha (K15447), or spo11Δ mam1Δ rec8-14D-ha (K15451). (A) Quantification of nuclear division at anaphase I (Pds1-negative, one spindle; n = 100). (B) Quantification of reductional/equational URA3 sister segregation in strains able to divide their nuclei in meiosis I (n = 100). (C) Live imaging of meiosis in SGO1-GFP MTW1-RFP cells with REC8-ha (Z14855) or rec8-14D-ha (Z14860) and RTS1-GFP MTW1-RFP cells with REC8-ha (Z15523) or rec8-14D-ha (Z15526). Time (min) is relative to entry into metaphase I, during which Mtw1 foci coalesce into a single cluster. (D) Chromosome spreads from SGO1-myc cells with REC8-ha (K15991) or rec8-14D-ha (K15992) and RTS1-myc cells with REC8-ha (K15993) or rec8-14D-ha (K15994) in anaphase I were stained for DNA, Tub4/γ-tubulin at SPBs, and Myc.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Interaction of Rec8 with the Protein Kinases Hrr25, DDK, and Cdc5 (A) Immunoblot detection of Rec8 in extracts from ndt80Δ cells with CDC7 HRR25 (Z16490), cdc7-4 (Z16491), hrr25-as (Z16492), or cdc7-4 hrr25-as (Z16492) entering meiosis (31°C, 1NM-PP1). (B–F) Immunoblot analysis of anti-Ha immunoprecipitates from extracts of meiotic REC8 (control) and REC8-ha strains. (B) PCLB2-CDC20 cells with REC8 (Z5620) or REC8-ha (Z7532). (C) spo11Δ cells with REC8 (Z7271), REC8-ha (Z8225), or PREC8-SCC1-ha (Z8444). (D) PCLB2-CDC20 cells with REC8 (Z10271), REC8-ha (Z10266), or REC8-ha hrr25-as (Z10274), treated with 1NM-PP1. (E) bob1 cells with REC8 (Z9053), REC8-ha (Z9052), or REC8-ha cdc7Δ (Z9341). (F) PCLB2-CDC20 cells with REC8 (Z8535), REC8-ha (Z8536), or REC8-ha PSCC1-CDC5 (Z9320).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Hrr25 and DDK Promote Cohesin Destruction upon APC/C Activation in Prophase I (A–D) Live imaging of Rec8-GFP and TetR-RFP in heterozygous URA3-tetO strains entering meiosis at 31°C. Panels: time-lapse series with time (min) after Rec8 appearance. Graphs: the presence of nuclear Rec8-GFP (green) and separated URA3-RFP sister sequences (red) was quantified every 10 min in 100 cells, in which Rec8 appearance was set to t = 0. (A) REC8-GFP ndt80Δ cells with MND2 (Z14429) or mnd2Δ (Z14432). (B) rec8-24A-GFP ndt80Δ cells with MND2 (Z14489) or mnd2Δ (Z14492). (C) REC8-GFP ndt80Δ mnd2Δ cells with CDC7 HRR25 (Z15180), cdc7-4 (Z15434), hrr25-as (Z15436), or hrr25-as cdc7-4 (Z15215), treated with 1NM-PP1. (D) rec8-14D-GFP ndt80Δ mnd2Δ cells with CDC7 HRR25 (Z15181), cdc7-4 (Z15433), hrr25-as (Z15435), or hrr25-as cdc7-4 (Z15182), treated with 1NM-PP1. (E) Cleavage of Rec8 in vitro. ndt80Δ REC8-ha cells (K17066) and ndt80Δ cdc7-4 hrr25-as cells with REC8-ha (K17068) or rec8-14D-ha (K17069) were arrested in prophase I (31°C, 1NM-PP1). Chromatin was isolated and incubated with inactive (cd) or active (wt) Esp1/separase as in Figure 2D. Reactions separated into pellet and supernatant were analyzed by anti-Ha immunoblotting. See also Figure S4.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Rec8 Phosphorylation by Hrr25 and DDK, but Not Cdc5, Is Required for Cleavage at Anaphase I (A–C) Live imaging of Rec8-GFP and Pds1-RFP in meiosis (31°C, 1NM-PP1). Panels: time-lapse series with time (min) after Pds1 degradation. Arrows mark centromeric Rec8. Graphs: the presence of nuclear Rec8-GFP (green) and Pds1-RFP (meiosis I, red) was quantified every 10 min in 50 cells, in which Pds1 degradation was set to t = 0. (A) REC8-GFP cells with HRR25 CDC7 (Z15135), cdc7-4 (Z15055), hrr25-as (Z15138), or hrr25-as cdc7-4 (Z15058). (B) rec8-14D-GFP (Z15438) and rec8-14D-GFP hrr25-as cdc7-4 (Z15439) cells. (C) REC8-GFP ama1Δ cells with HRR25 CDC7 (Z16346), hrr25-as (Z15615), cdc7-4 (Z15703), hrr25-as cdc7-4 (Z15704), PSCC1-CDC5 (Z15612), or hrr25-as PSCC1-CDC5 (Z15614). See also Figures S5 and S6.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Model for the Control of Rec8 Cleavage by Rec8 Kinases, Sgo1-PP2A, and Separase CK1δ/ɛ and DDK phosphorylate Rec8 along chromosomes, and this phosphorylation is prevented at centromeres by Sgo1-PP2A. At the onset of anaphase I, separase cleaves phosphorylated Rec8 on chromosome arms, leading to chiasmata resolution. Unphosphorylated, centromeric Rec8 is resistant to separase and persists to support the biorientation of sister chromatids in meiosis II. See also Figure S7.

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