Gastric cancer can be divided into two histologic types: intestinal and diffuse. To determine whether Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium linked with gastritis, was associated with either cancer type, we reviewed histologic sections from stomachs of patients who had undergone gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Of 37 of the sections with evidence of intestinal-type cancer, 33 (89.2%) contained H pylori in noncancerous tissue compared with 7 (31.8%) of 22 of the sections with evidence of diffuse-type cancer (odds ratio = 17.7; P less than .001). This association remained strong when controlled for age, sex, site, and number of sections reviewed. The prevalence of H pylori in intestinal-type gastric cancer far exceeded the prevalence of H pylori in diffuse disease and that described in the normal US population. This finding suggests that H pylori may be a cofactor in development of intestinal-type gastric cancer.