Epidemiology and clinical features of glomerulonephritis in Calabar, Nigeria

Niger J Physiol Sci. 2009 Dec;24(2):91-4. doi: 10.4314/njps.v24i2.52913.


A retrospective study of children with acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) over a 10-year period (January 1997-December 2006) was carried out with the aim to establish the prevalence, the population at risk, and the predisposing factors. Out of a total of 6,026 admissions during the study period, 76 (1.3%) had acute glomerulonephritis. Forty of the 76 were males while 28 were females with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. The mean age for males was 7.2+/-4.3 years and that of females was 6.5+/-3.2 years. The overall age range was 3-13 years with a modal age of 5 years for both sexes. The annual prevalence showed two peaks, May-July and October-January. Eighty two percent of patients were of the low while 11.8% were of the middle socio-economic classes. Haematuria, oedema, proteinuria and hypertension were the major presenting features. Hypertensive encephalopathy and acute renal failure were the complications recorded and also emerged as the causes of death. Childhood AGN is common in Calabar compared to other centres in Nigeria, afflicting largely those of low socio-economic status and displays a peak in the middle of both dry and rainy seasons of the year. The outcome is good but could be better if facilities are provided for dialysis.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology
  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Edema / epidemiology
  • Edema / etiology
  • Female
  • Glomerulonephritis / complications*
  • Glomerulonephritis / epidemiology*
  • Glomerulonephritis / mortality
  • Hematuria / epidemiology
  • Hematuria / etiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertensive Encephalopathy / epidemiology
  • Hypertensive Encephalopathy / etiology
  • Male
  • Nigeria / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria / complications
  • Proteinuria / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Seasons
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Time Factors