Calcium acetate control of serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients

Am J Kidney Dis. 1991 May;17(5):544-50. doi: 10.1016/s0272-6386(12)80496-3.

Abstract

Calcium acetate has many characteristics of an ideal phosphorus binder. It is a readily soluble salt that avidly binds phosphorus in vitro at pH 5 and above. One-dose/one-meal balance studies show it to be more potent than calcium carbonate or calcium citrate. We studied chronic (3-month) phosphorus binding with calcium acetate in 91 hyperphosphatemic dialysis patients at four different centers. All phosphorus binders were stopped for 2 weeks. Calcium acetate at an initial dose of 8.11 mmol (325 mg Ca2+) per meal was then used as the only phosphorus binder. Dose was adjusted to attempt control of predialysis phosphorus level less than 1.78 mmol/L (5.5 mg/100 mL). Final calcium acetate dose was 14.6 mmol (586 mg) Ca2+ per meal. Sixteen patients developed mild transient hypercalcemia (mean, 2.84 mmol/L [11.4 mg/dL]. Initial phosphorus values in mmol/L (mg/dL) were 2.39 (7.4); at 1 month, 1.91 (5.9); and at 3 months, 1.68 (5.2). Initial calcium values in mmol/L (mg/dL) were 2.22 (8.9); at 1 month, 2.37 (9.5); and at 3 months, 2.42 (9.7). Initial aluminum values in mumol/L (micrograms/L) were 2.99 (80.7); and at 3 months were 2.54 (68.4). Initial C-terminal parathyroid hormone (C-PTH) values in ng/mL were 14.6; at 1 month, 11.9; and at 3 months, 13.2. Sixty-nine patients then entered a double-blind study. Phosphorus binders were stopped for 1 week. Calcium acetate (at a dose established in a prior study) or placebo was then administered for 2 weeks. Next, patients were crossed to the opposite regimen for 2 weeks. Initial phosphorus was 2.36 mmol/L (7.3 mg/100 mL) and calcium 2.22 mmol/L (8.9 mg/100 mL).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / adverse effects
  • Acetates / therapeutic use*
  • Acetic Acid
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aluminum / blood
  • Calcium / blood
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Phosphorus / blood*
  • Renal Dialysis*

Substances

  • Acetates
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Phosphorus
  • Aluminum
  • Acetic Acid
  • Calcium