Features of polyingression and primitive streak ingression through the basal lamina in the chicken blastoderm

Anat Rec. 1991 Mar;229(3):369-83. doi: 10.1002/ar.1092290310.


The de-epithelialization of cells of the upper layer during the phenomena of polyingression and primitive streak ingression was studied by analyzing, from the time of laying to the end of gastrulation, the ultrastructure of the basal lamina underlying the upper layer. The electron density of the basal lamina and associated extracellular materials was enhanced by addition of tannic acid to the fixative. Special attention was also paid to the spatial and temporal distribution of blebs at the basal surface of the upper layer, and to the contribution of the de-epithelialized cells to the formation of the deep layer. The results indicate that a nascent basal lamina is already present at the time of laying, especially beneath regions of the area pellucida where polyingression is not apparent. From the onset of incubation, the basal lamina rapidly develops, and it is interrupted by a large number of blebs. However, during the first 6-8 h of incubation, i.e., stages 1-2 of Vakaet (Arch. Biol. (Liège) 81:387-426, 1970), a downward movement of de-epithelialized cells that insert into the deep layer and form the endophyll persists cranially. This phenomenon of polyingression, which starts during the intrauterine period, probably extends from caudal to cranial and comes to an end by stage 3. During these first three stages, the number of blebs progressively decreases, especially in the cranial part of the area pellucida, and a thicker, continuous basal lamina associated with numerous interstitial bodies is laid down. The caudal part of the upper layer is still actively blebbing at that time. Due to the convergence of this area toward the axis of the blastoderm, which leads to ingression at and elongation of the primitive streak up to and including stage 6, the number of blebs at the basal surface of the upper layer progressively decreases. From stage 7 on, blebs are virtually absent; shortening of the primitive streak and formation of the head process begin. At the level of the head process, primitive streak ingression has ceased and a novel basal lamina is progressively deposited beneath the upper layer. By stage 9, a thick, smooth basal lamina physically separates the upper layer from the head mesenchyme. Summarizing, at the time of gastrulation, the presence of blebs that perforate the basal lamina is correlated with the de-epithelialization of cells. Before incubation, however, de-epithelialization of upper-layer cells occurs before the assembly of the basal lamina.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Basement Membrane / embryology
  • Basement Membrane / ultrastructure
  • Blastoderm / chemistry
  • Blastoderm / cytology*
  • Blastoderm / ultrastructure
  • Cell Movement / physiology
  • Chick Embryo
  • Collagen / analysis
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Epithelium / embryology
  • Extracellular Matrix / chemistry
  • Gastrula / chemistry
  • Gastrula / cytology*
  • Gastrula / ultrastructure
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Microscopy, Electron


  • Collagen