Urinary screening of elementary and junior high-school children over a 13-year period in Tokyo

Pediatr Nephrol. 1991 Jan;5(1):50-3. doi: 10.1007/BF00852844.


The School Health Law of Japan was passed in 1974 mandating urine screening of elementary and junior high-school students for the detection of renal disease. A first morning urine was obtained on an annual basis for each individual student for the time period 1974-1986. The prevalence of proteinuria and haematuria among elementary school children was 0.08% and 0.54%, respectively, while junior high-school students demonstrated corresponding prevalences of 0.37% and 0.94%. The theoretical merits of this screening programme include the detection of glomerulonephritis with possible early therapeutic intervention. However, a limitation to this approach is its over-sensitivity where asymptomatic urine abnormalities is found to be 10 times greater in frequency than glomerulonephritis histologically.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Hematuria / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Nephritis / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria / epidemiology
  • Urine