Frequency of aerobic and anaerobic isolates in 327 aspirates and in 123 pleural fluid samples from 327 horses with pneumonia or pleuropneumonia and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the aerobes were reported. Of the 327 horses, 75% survived, 20% were euthanatized, and 5% died. Tracheobronchial aspirates or pleural fluid specimens from 25 of the horses did not yield growth. Of the remaining 302 horses, 221 had only aerobic organisms isolated, whereas only anaerobes were isolated from 6 of the 302 horses. The remaining 75 horses had mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infections. The survival rates for horses with aerobic only isolates was twice that of horses with anaerobic isolates. The aerobic bacteria most frequently isolated were beta-Streptococcus spp, Pasteurella spp, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter spp. The anaerobic species most frequently isolated were Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp.