The authors compared the three-dimensional Fourier transform (3DFT) time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiograms in 38 patients initially studied with selective intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for suspected arteriosclerotic disease of the carotid bifurcation. MR angiograms were successfully obtained in 65 of the 75 carotid arteries (87%) visualized with DSA. DSA and MR angiographic studies were assessed for percentage area stenosis by two independent observers on two occasions. Statistical tests indicated consistency in interpretation for each observer as well as between observers. No significant difference was found between the two modalities in ability to depict changes in percentage area stenosis. For the 32 right carotid arteries in the comparison, the median for the difference between MR angiography and intraarterial DSA was 1.83% (range, -22.38% to 55.60%); for the 33 visualized left carotid arteries, it was 0.00% (range, -20.55% to 49.95%). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that technically adequate MR angiography may be a sensitive screening examination for stenoses.