Identification of a gene family regulated by transforming growth factor-beta

DNA Cell Biol. 1991 May;10(4):293-300. doi: 10.1089/dna.1991.10.293.


We have identified two related genes whose mRNAs are increased after treatment with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1). Mouse AKR-2B cells were treated with TGF-beta 1 in the presence of cyclohexamide and a cDNA library was subjected to differential screening. Several TGF-beta-induced genes (beta IG) were isolated and two of these, beta IG-M1 and beta IG-M2, were characterized. beta IG-M1 and beta IG-M2 RNAs were significantly increased after TGF-beta 1 treatment and both were superinduced in the presence of cyclohexamide. cDNA sequence analysis of beta IG-M1 showed that it encoded a 379-amino-acid protein which was 81% homologous to CEF-10, a v-src and TPA-inducible gene, and identical to cyr61, a gene induced by serum in growth-arrested BALB-3T3 cells. cDNA sequence analysis of beta IG-M2 showed that it encoded a 348-amino-acid protein that was 50% homologous to beta IG-M1. Thirty-eight cysteine residues are conserved between beta IG-M1 and beta IG-M2, which are clustered at the amino and carboxy ends: The middle regions of the two proteins are cysteine free and display the highest degree of nonhomology. Both proteins contain an amino-terminal cysteine-rich motif common to insulin-like growth factor binding proteins and a carboxy-terminal domain with strong homology to a motif found near the carboxy-terminal of the malarial circumsporozoite protein which may be involved in cell adhesion. The regulation of mRNA encoding these proteins by TGF-beta 1 suggests that they may be involved in mediating some of the pleiotropic effects of this multipotent modulator of cell growth and differentiation.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Cell Line
  • Cycloheximide / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis*
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Cycloheximide

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M65213
  • GENBANK/M80263
  • GENBANK/S60919
  • GENBANK/S60920
  • GENBANK/S65647
  • GENBANK/S65649
  • GENBANK/X64571
  • GENBANK/X64572
  • GENBANK/X64573
  • GENBANK/X64574