Drug targets for amyloidosis

Biochem Soc Trans. 2010 Apr;38(2):466-70. doi: 10.1042/BST0380466.

Abstract

The amyloid hypothesis indicates that protein misfolding is at the root of many neurodegenerative disorders. Small molecules targeting the formation, clearance, aggregation to toxic oligomers or SOD (superoxide dismutase)-like activities of Abeta (amyloid beta-peptide) 1-42 have provided encouraging candidates for AD (Alzheimer's disease) medicines in animal models, although none have yet proved to be effective in human trials. We have been investigating approaches to treat systemic amyloidoses, conditions that show common features with some CNS (central nervous system) disorders. For TTR (transthyretin) amyloidosis, we are seeking small molecule compounds that stabilize the amyloidogenic protein and either prevent its structural transition to the crossed beta fibres deposited in diseased tissues, or promote its clearance from circulation. Effective stabilizer compounds that simultaneously bind to both thyroxine-binding sites have been developed. A more generic approach involves targeting the plasma glycoprotein SAP (serum amyloid P component). This protein recognizes the misfolded polypeptide structures of amyloid deposits wherever they occur, and acts as a powerful anti-opsonin. We have developed a bivalent drug called CPHPC {(R)-1-[6-[(R)-2-carboxy-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-6-oxo-hexanoyl]-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid} that cross-links pairs of pentameric SAP molecules and causes their rapid elimination from the circulation. This strategy raises the prospect of encouraging natural mechanisms to clear amyloid and recent work suggests that this approach extends to the CNS.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amyloidosis / drug therapy*
  • Amyloidosis / etiology
  • Amyloidosis / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Carboxylic Acids / pharmacology
  • Carboxylic Acids / therapeutic use
  • Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology
  • Cross-Linking Reagents / therapeutic use
  • Drug Delivery Systems / methods*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Molecular
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / etiology
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism
  • Prealbumin / metabolism
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Multimerization / physiology
  • Pyrrolidines / pharmacology
  • Pyrrolidines / therapeutic use
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component / metabolism

Substances

  • Carboxylic Acids
  • Cross-Linking Reagents
  • Prealbumin
  • Pyrrolidines
  • R-1-(6-(R-2-carboxypyrrolidin-1-yl)-6-oxohexanoyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component