This review covers the use of the facultative intracellular bacteria, Listeriamonocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium as delivery systems for tumor-associated antigens in tumor immunotherapy. Because of their ability to infect and survive in antigen presenting cells, these bacteria have been harnessed to deliver tumor antigens to the immune system both as bacterially expressed proteins and encoded on eukaryotic plasmids. They do this in the context of strong innate immunity, which provides the required stimulus to the immune response to break tolerance against those tumor-associated antigens that bear homology to self. Here we describe differences in the properties of these bacteria as vaccine vectors, a summary of the major therapies they have been applied to and their advancement towards the clinic.
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