Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of ocular fundus pathology in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a multicenter, longitudinal study of individuals with varying stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In this cross-sectional study, 45 degree digital photos of the disc and macula in both eyes were obtained by nonophthalmologic personnel using a nonmydriatic Canon CR-DGI fundus camera in 1936 individuals who participated in the CRIC study. Photographs were assessed in a masked manner by graders and a retinal specialist at a central photograph reading center. The purpose of this review was to inform participants quickly of conditions that warranted a complete eye examination by an ophthalmologist.
Results: Among the 1936 participants who were photographed, 1904 (98%) had assessable photographs in at least one eye. Eye pathologies that required a follow-up examination by an ophthalmologist were identified in 864 (45%) of these 1904 participants. These eye pathologies included, among others, retinopathy (diabetic and/or hypertensive), a finding that was observed in 482 (25%) of these 1904 participants. Three percent (65 participants) of the 1904 participants had serious eye conditions that required urgent follow-up and treatment. Lower estimated GFR and cardiovascular disease were associated with greater eye pathology. Estimated GFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) was associated with a three times higher risk for retinopathy.
Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of fundus pathology in participants with CKD. This finding supports recommendations for regular complete eye examinations in the CKD population.