Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), a relatively frequent endocrine disease in newborns (1 in 3000-4000 live births). TD is a defect in the organogenesis of the gland resulting in hypoplastic, ectopic or absent-thyroid gland. TD is usually sporadic but mutations in transcription factors (PAX8, TTF1, FOXE1 and NKX2-5) involved in thyroid development have been shown to cause a minority of cases transmitted as Mendelian diseases. This review focuses on the genetics and phenomics of hypothyroidism and TD due to PAX8 and TTF1 mutations.
Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.