Outstanding results have been obtained in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with first-line imatinib therapy. However, approximately 35% of patients will not obtain long-term benefit with this approach. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is a valuable second- and third-line therapy for appropriately selected patients. To identify useful prognostic indicators of transplantation outcome in postimatinib therapeutic interventions, we investigated the role of the HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI) together with levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) before HCT in 271 patients who underwent myeloablative HCT for CML in first chronic phase. Multivariate analysis showed both an HCT-CI score higher than 0 and CRP levels higher than 9 mg/L independently predict inferior survival and increased nonrelapse mortality at 100 days after HCT. CML patients without comorbidities (HCT-CI score 0) with normal CRP levels (0-9 mg/L) may therefore be candidates for early allogeneic HCT after failing imatinib.