Role of CK1 in GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of snail

Oncogene. 2010 May 27;29(21):3124-33. doi: 10.1038/onc.2010.77. Epub 2010 Mar 22.


The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that occurs during embryonic development has begun to attract attention as a potential mechanism for tumor cell metastasis. Snail is a well-known Zn-finger transcription factor that promotes EMT by repressing E-cadherin expression. It is known that Snail is phosphorylated by GSK3beta and degraded by beta-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination. Here we described another protein kinase, CK1, whose phosphorylation of Snail is required for the subsequent GSK3beta phosphorylation. Specific inhibition or depletion of CK1varepsilon inhibits the phosphorylation and degradation of Snail and promotes cell migration, suggesting a central role of CK1varepsilon in the EMT process. Furthermore, our study uncovered distinct roles and steps of Snail phosphorylation by CK1varepsilon and GSK3beta. Taken together, we identified CK1varepsilon as a new component of the Snail-mediated EMT process, providing insight into the mechanism of human cancer metastasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Binding Sites
  • Creatine Kinase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism*
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Kinetics
  • Phosphorylation
  • Phosphoserine / metabolism
  • RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • Snail Family Transcription Factors
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins / metabolism


  • Isoenzymes
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Snail Family Transcription Factors
  • Transcription Factors
  • beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins
  • Phosphoserine
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • GSK3B protein, human
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • Creatine Kinase