The target proteins of a cytosolic Trx (PfTrx-1) in Plasmodium falciparum with Trx-affinity chromatography were examined. Based on the Trx protein reduction pathway, we generated a cysteine mutant of PfTrx-1, which captures the target protein as a mixed disulfide intermediate. A number of proteins were captured with PfTrx-1(C33S) immobilized on resin and were eluted by DTT treatment. The PfTrx-1(C33S) immobilized resin-captured proteins were trypsin-digested and analyzed on a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Analysis of the sequence data against databases assigned 20 proteins, four of which had been found previously in P. falciparum, with the remaining 16 being new targets. The potential Trx-target proteins included those in pathways such as the redox cycle, protein biosynthesis, energy metabolism and signal transduction. We captured 4 enzymes in the glycolysis pathway (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate mutase and L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) as Trx-targets, and we found that PfTrx-1 enhanced the activity of PfGAPDH and PfLDH.