Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with radiotherapy are at risk for impaired fertility. Whether chemotherapy alone is also long-term gonadotoxic is unclear. We assessed gonadal function in 11 male ALL-survivors treated with the same chemotherapy regimen and compared sperm analysis to healthy men. While sex hormone levels were normal in all subjects, 5/11 survivors showed pathological sperm concentration and 4/11 a decreased total sperm count compared to WHO criteria. Compared to healthy controls, all quantitative parameters in semen analysis of survivors were decreased. This suggests that treatment with chemotherapeutic agents alone, even in moderate doses, might have a gonadotoxic effect.