ATP13A2 mutations (PARK9) cause neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation

Mov Disord. 2010 Jun 15;25(8):979-84. doi: 10.1002/mds.22947.


Kufor Rakeb disease (KRD, PARK9) is an autosomal recessive extrapyramidal-pyramidal syndrome with generalized brain atrophy due to ATP13A2 gene mutations. We report clinical details and investigational results focusing on radiological findings of a genetically-proven KRD case. Clinically, there was early onset levodopa-responsive dystonia-parkinsonism with pyramidal signs and eye movement abnormalities. Brain MRI revealed generalized atrophy and putaminal and caudate iron accumulation bilaterally. Our findings add KRD to the group of syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). KRD should be considered in patients with dystonia-parkinsonism with iron on brain imaging and we suggest classifying as NBIA type 3.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Iron / metabolism*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Male
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Nerve Degeneration* / etiology
  • Nerve Degeneration* / genetics
  • Nerve Degeneration* / pathology
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases / genetics*


  • ATP13A2 protein, human
  • Iron
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases