The object of this randomized study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oral ofloxacin, 400 mg twice daily for 10 days, versus intramuscular cefoxitin, 2 gm, plus oral probenecid, 1 gm, followed by oral doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily for 10 days, in the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated acute salpingitis. Thirty-eight women (53%) had Neisseria gonorrhoeae from their pretreatment endocervical or endometrial cultures, and 18 had Chlamydia trachomatis (25%). Thirty-five of 37 women (95%) treated with the ofloxacin regimen were clinically cured, and 34 of 35 (97%) were cured with the cefoxitin-doxycycline regimen (p = 0.52). One clinical failure occurred in each group with N. gonorrhoeae infection, and one failure occurred in the ofloxacin group because of side effects. The bacteriologic response for N. gonorrhoeae in both groups was 100%. The eradication of C. trachomatis was 100% (10/10) for the cefoxitin/doxycycline group and 86% (6/7) for ofloxacin. The side effects were similar in both groups of subjects. In this study both regimens were effective for the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated acute salpingitis.