Eight exercise-trained miniature swine were studied during prolonged treadmill runs (100 min) under fasting and preexercise feeding conditions. Each animal ran at identical external work loads that corresponded to 65% of the heart rate reserve (210-220 beats/min) for the two exercise bouts. Cardiac outputs and stroke volumes were higher and heart rates lower for fed than for fasting runs (P less than 0.05). Preexercise feeding did not alter oxygen consumption, core temperature, mean arterial pressure, and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference during prolonged exercise; however, mixed venous lactate concentration was lower at end exercise than during fasting conditions (1.2 vs. 2.6 mM, P less than 0.05). Microsphere measurements of regional blood flow revealed significantly higher total gastrointestinal flow (23%) for fed than for fasting conditions. Throughout the exercise bout, blood flow to the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and tibialis anterior muscles was lower in fed than in fasted animals (P less than 0.05). Combined hindlimb muscle blood flow averaged 15 ml.min-1.100 g-1 (18%, P less than 0.05) lower under feeding than fasting run conditions. These findings provide further evidence that cardiovascular reflexes originate in the gut after feeding to increase cardiac output and redistribute a portion of the blood flow away from active muscle to the gastrointestinal tract during prolonged exercise.